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Molluscan Ecology Program


Predators in Action:
Rapa whelks vs. Hard clams

Harding, JM, Clark, VP, and Mann, R. 2003. Predators in Action: Rapa Whelks vs. Hard Clams. Virginia Institute of Marine Science. VSG-03-01. VIMS ES-55. 1/2003.

This booklet gives information and data-based exercises describing ecological and economic connections between introduced rapa whelk Rapana venosa predators and local hard clams Mercenaria mercenaria in the lower Chesapeake Bay. The information is focused to answer the question: "How many hard clams could a rapa whelk eat in one year?"

It is attached as a PDF file that includes a data based activity, student worksheets, and teacher answer keys. If you choose to use these materials, please note that these materials and activities are copyrighted and should be cited appropriately.

Download PDF file for this activity.

This publication may be reproduced by educators for instructional use only. Unless otherwise noted, all pictures and illustrations contained herein are the property of Juliana M. Harding. Permission to reproduce or use any pictures or illustrations separately from the entire publication should be obtained directly from the authors. Contact Dr. Juliana Harding ( or Ms. Vicki Clark ( for additional information.

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Document last modified 04.10.2004
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All rights reserved. All images © Juliana M. Harding.